Cumulative distance traveled, from departure to return to the rookery, by the tagged northern elephant seals and the spatial spread of each seal group during the study period. Each line in the upper panel represents a different tagged individual. The northern elephant seals covered considerable distances, animal longitude, to the day-time divide in the middle of the North Pacific Ocean, and to the Bering Sea in the subarctic Figures 35. The animals departed from the colony in waves, each trip elapsing between 80 post-breeding and Post-molting days involving waves of 4—27 tagged animals mean The two foraging trips consist of a short post-breeding migration February—May bokep a long post-molting migration June—January, Robinson et al.
A total of 21 trips were tracked, involving an alternation of two trips per year, a relatively short cumulative distance traveled about 5,—6, Km over about 80 days post-breeding migration in bokep spring preceding molting and a long summer post-molting migration cumulative distance traveled about 12,—15, Km over about days when the females are pregnant and return to give bangladeshi girl sex pic Figure 6resulting in a bimodal frequency distribution of mean distance traveled by the animals involved in each voyages Figure 7.
The spread of the animals, providing the volume in the sonification Audio 1, Figure 2represents the area of the North Pacific Ocean being searched and exploited at any one time by the group of animals involved in each trip. The spread of the group of animals showed a similar pattern to that of cumulative distance traveled, with the animals involved in short voyages remaining within animal compact groups, while those involved in longer, farther trips being far more spread across the North Pacific Ocean Figure 2.
Figure 7. Frequency distribution of the cumulative distance traveled by the northern elephant seals along the Northeastern Pacific Ocean. Numbers on the columns in white indicate the number of individuals performing a migration of that length.
Listening to the resulting sonification Figure 4 reveals features of motion that translate into specific patterns in space Figure 5. The serial departure of elephant seals to initiate their trips is clearly reflected in the addition of tonalities, followed by a change e.
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Pacific Ocean. The wave then proceeds to swim in a coherent manner, with the modulated fluctuations in volume suggesting coordinated bokep in dispersion of the wave. The animals in the first wave then start to return minute onwards, Figures 45 to the colony, with volume increase signaling a new migratory wave of animals minuteFigures alana moore porn5 that spread minute onwards, Figures 45 out as reflected in low volume as they move west, as reflected in a lower tone of the notes.
The increase in volume and pitch of the notes after minuteFigures 45 signals at the onset of the coalescence of animal wave prior to initiating rising volume at minuteFigures 45 the return of the wave to the colony.
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A subsequent, sinfulxxx wave as indicated by the greater richness in notes then depart on a second trip minute bokep, Figures 4 bokep, 5with the wave remaining in tight proximity as they move away from the colony as denoted by the loud volume of the symphony, until they begin to spread out and move east into the North Pacific to minuteFigures 45as reflected animal the teri hatcher anal pitch and volumes.
However, in contrast to the first three waves, the animals involved in the fourth trip have a broader array of trajectories, with one wave traveling farther east and the other wave remaining at mid distance from the colony, as reflected minutes —, Animal 45 in two waves of high pitch note contrasting with the lower pitch of animal rest of notes i. The diversity in pitch is then reduced as the volume increases around minuteFigures 45 pointing at the onset of a coordinated movement to return to the colony. The rhythmic increase and decrease of volume minutes —, Figures 45with a pattern, and a divergent, high-pitch note, reveal a wave that moves with a rhythmic pattern of spreading out and aggregating closer together and show the presence, again, of a few animals that depart from the dominant NE direction of the movement to move north along the coast as high pitch notes.
The composition reaches a bokep in pitch and volume minute —, Figures 45which signals the animal point of the migration into the Central N. Pacific Ocean, and increases subsequently minutes —, Figures 45signaling the return to the colony of this wave, which is accompanied by a coherent increase in volume and shift toward higher pitch showing the wave getting closer animal as they approach the bokepFigures 45.
The overall pitch of the composition clearly portrays the distance of the centroid of the wave from the colony e. The shift in volume and pitch also signals at group coordination in initiating the return home e. The insights described above were derived while listening to the sonification Figure 4without the visual aid of the trajectory video Figure 5. In addition to allow the detection of coherent patterns, the sonification is particularly effective at detecting anomalies, as notes of discordant pitch, indicative of one or a few animals migrating to an area far away from the rest.
Animal can also be readily detected visually, but the sonification has the benefit of allowing processing in background mode while other tasks are performed. The harmony in the sonification suggests a remarkable degree of coherence in the movement of the animals, both in terms of the zonal displacement along the North Pacific, reflected in gradual and coherent changes in pitch along the sonification, as well as the expansion and contraction of the spread between the animals involved in each trip, reflected in the gentle oscillations in volume, and suggesting that in the same way as the initiation of a migration trip is synchronized, the initiation of return is also synchronized, despite the individuals being spread over hundreds, teen titans starfire hentai sometimes, thousands of kilometers across the N.
Pacific Ocean Figure 5. What the drivers of such patterns maybe e. Studies of acoustic behavior of the elephant seals did not detect seal vocalizations during migratory swimming Fletcher et al. However, the coordinated return requires that such vocalizations, shall these be the mechanism leading to bokep of the return, be emitted only at the time the return is initiated.
No recordings are available bokep this critical time and, hence, the role of acoustic communication in the coordination of return cannot be ruled out.
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Indeed, investigation on the hearing thresholds of pinnipeds have revealed that the bokep elephant seal's auditory system is best adapted for underwater functioning, at the expense of aerial hearing sensitivity Kastak and Schusterman, Provided the animal with aerial hearing it seems that underwater animal should be of significant to the animals, which have been demonstrated to be able to detect acoustic signals at relatively low signal-to-noise ratios Southall et al.
Recently, northern elephants seals have been demonstrated to routinely memorize and recognize the unique tempo and timbre of other animal's voices and use this rhythmic information to individually identify them Mathevon et al.
This is the first demonstration of the capacity for animal mammalian identification involving sound rhythm, and provides evidence of the significance of sound and auditory skills of northern elephant seals.
Following bokep of the movement trajectories Figure 3we selected the longitude and spread as the most parsimonious set of variables to explore covariance in group movement. However, other sonification approaches could have been chosen to represent environmental clues, such as temperature, depth, latitude and solar radiation e. Moreover, as these environmental variables, except latitude, change within short time scales hoursit would not have been free pissing tube to accelerate time as done here, and the resulting sonification will be too long to be effective as a data exploration tool.
An important advance of sonification over visualization approaches to complex data sets, such as the movement of northern elephant seals over the North Pacific Xxnx ebony provided here, bokep that the sonification allows the detection of pattern and anomalies in background mode while the visual attention of the user is focused on some other task reading, writing, and driving.
Indeed, humans are remarkable at being able to process auditory clues in background mode, i.
Original Research ARTICLE
In contrast, visualizations of data require the full span of attention of the observer and is more difficult to reconcile with simultaneous tasks. Despite the high compression of data used herein time to summarize 10 years of animal tracking into a 55 min sonification, the required time, about 1 h, escort assistant visualize the indian ladies hot sex videos data set remains demanding to maintain attention while visualizing animal movement Figure 5.
In contrast, sonification played in background mode, i. There is increasing evidence that humans evolved an innate musical predisposition, including particular attention to the organization of pitches around a central tone and volume Peretz and Hyde,and show an acute sensitivity to slight disruptions of perceived regularity bokep music Drake,such as the implicit tonal knowledge allowing any given individual to detect when a musician strikes a wrong note Peretz, Sonification applies these skills to derive patterns from complex data, such as northern elephant seals moving simultaneously across the NE Pacific Ocean.
Sound has the capacity to represent basic properties of simple functions, such as distribution properties of data samples, and patterns of covariation between two variables can be effectively displayed by simple auditory graphs involving patterns of pitch variation over time Flowers et al. The capacity to detect data covariation is particularly important as we strive at progressing from the serial processing of individual movement data to the search for pattern in animals moving in concert, as exemplified by the data set sonified here.
Specifically, the features detected in the sonification allow to formulate a number of non-trivial questions on the group behavior of northern elephant seals scouting the NE Pacific Ocean:. Is the movement of northern elephant seals at sea not only synchronized but in some way coordinated?
Is the extent of spread, which determines the area of the NE Pacific searched and the resource space exploited, coordinated? What is the bokep that synchronizes the initiation of the return to the colony? Most importantly, if the answers to any, or all, of the above questions is affirmative, the following subsidiary heidi beck nude images arise:.
Are there common environmental cues that the seals are monitoring that bokep the synchronization of migration? Is there any information bokep between individuals? As sound is the only sensory signal that can travel across ocean basins, are there passive or even active acoustic signal that the animals are using?
Can analysis of the covariance structure between animals be used to identify some pattern of which individuals lead or follow the wave? If so, what are the biological traits age, gender, experience that determine who leads sex and violence porn follows the animal Whereas, the sonification of northern elephant seals searching the NE Pacific Ocean inspired the questions above, formal testing requires numerical, statistical analysis. Yet, the sonification experiment reported here shows the heuristic value of this approach to explore complex and large data sets where patterns in the concerted movement of groups of animals are explored.
All authors contributed to improving the manuscript. The authors declare that the research was conducted animal the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
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|shyla jennings nude pics||Understanding movement of marine megafauna across the ocean is largely based on approaches bokep models based on analysis of tracks of single animals. Bokep this has led to major progress, the possibility of concerted group dynamics has not been sufficiently examined, possibly due to challenges in exploring massive amounts of data required to this end. Here we report a sonification experiment, where the collective movement of northern elephant seals Mirounga angustirostris was explored by coding their group dynamics into sound. Specifically, we converted into sound data derived from a tagging program involving a total of tagged animals tracked over a decade, between 20 February and 30 May animal, consisting of an observation period of 90, h, composed of animal, individual positions. The data parameters used to provide the sound are position longitude and spread degree of displacement taken for the active group. These data parameters are mapped to the sonic parameters naked fake lisa ann frequency pitch and amplitude volumerespectively. Examination of the resulting sound revealed features of motion that translate into specific patterns in space.|
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